Introduction to Nursing Diagnosis: Acute Withdrawal Syndrome
Acute Withdrawal Syndrome is a diagnosis defined by the North American Nursing Diagnosis Association (NANDA) as a condition in which the patient is physically or psychologically dependent upon a given substance and has begun to experience side effects due to its sudden and abrupt removal. It is typically seen when an abused substance such as alcohol, opioids, benzodiazepines, or barbiturates is suddenly and drastically removed from the patient’s system.
NANDA Nursing Diagnosis Definition
- Verbalizes feeling of craving and/or loss
- Expresses anxiety
- Talks about desire to use the substance
- Describes confusion or disorientation
- Verbalizes grief or sense of loss
- Increased perspiration
- Restlessness or agitation
- Sleep disturbances or nightmares
- Unsteadiness, tremors or seizures
- Signs of distress such as facial grimacing
- Sudden removal of substance, either voluntarily or involuntarily
- Drug or alcohol dependence
- Inability to access the substance
- Low tolerance due to prolonged periods of abstinence
Those at risk are those who are substance dependent and abruptly stop using their substance of choice. Abstinence can be a voluntary decision or it can be mandated due to an event like an arrest that results in incarceration. It puts them at an increased risk of developing acute withdrawal syndrome.
Complications associated with acute withdrawal syndrome can range from mild to severe. These complications can include, but are not limited to, GI distress, dehydration, electrolyte imbalances, cardiovascular issues, cognitive deficits, delirium, and even death.
Suggestions for Use
Identifying acute withdrawal syndrome in a patient allows healthcare providers to develop a comprehensive treatment plan with goals to help manage the symptoms, prevent relapse, and promote overall well-being. Clinical interventions such as cognitive-behavioral therapy, pharmacotherapy, supportive care, and alternative treatments like yoga and meditation can all be utilized.
Suggested Alternative NANDA Diagnoses
Alternate diagnoses may be considered when there is evidence that the patient is actively using substances and/or in danger of participating in risky behaviors related to substance abuse. Other diagnoses could include Substance Abuse Self-Care Deficit, Powerlessness, or Risk for Injury.
When making a diagnosis of acute withdrawal syndrome, it is important to include multiple assessment criteria and to rule out other possibilities. The patient’s history and physical examination should also be taken into consideration. It is also important to assess if there is a co-occurring mental health issue such as depression or anxiety to better inform the care plan.
- Lifestyle Choices: The patient’s ability to make responsible decisions concerning substance usage.
- Nutrition: The patient’s ability to maintain hydration and get adequate nutrition.
- Health Beliefs: The patient’s ability to identify resources and use self-management strategies to cope with withdrawal symptoms.
- Social Interaction Skills: The patient’s ability to interact safely with those around them.
- Coping: The patient’s ability to cope with stressors associated with withdrawal.
- Substance Use Counseling: Promote healthy lifestyle choices through education on the importance of staying away from substance use.
- Nutrition Monitoring: Ensure appropriate hydration and nutrition through monitoring of food and fluid intake.
- Health Teaching: Educate the patient on the signs and symptoms of withdrawal, safety measures, and methods to cope with withdrawal.
- Relaxation Techniques: Provide relaxation techniques such as breath control and muscle relaxation to reduce anxiety and stress associated with withdrawal.
- Environmental Management: Monitor the environment to ensure the patient is safe and secure.
Acute Withdrawal Syndrome is a serious condition affecting those who have recently stopped using certain substances. Early recognition and intervention is key to managing the symptoms and reducing the risk of further complications. Comprehensive treatment plans including mental health support and lifestyle modifications are necessary to help manage the condition and prevent relapse.
- What is NANDA Nursing Diagnosis Acute Withdrawal Syndrome?
- NANDA Nursing Diagnosis Acute Withdrawal Syndrome is a diagnosis defined by the North American Nursing Diagnosis Association as a condition in which the patient is physically or psychologically dependent upon a given substance and has begun to experience side effects due to its sudden and abrupt removal.
- What are the NOC results for Acute Withdrawal Syndrome?
- The NOC results for Acute Withdrawal Syndrome are Lifestyle Choices, Nutrition, Health Beliefs, Social Interaction Skills, and Coping.
- What are the NIC Interventions for Acute Withdrawal Syndrome?
- The NIC Interventions for Acute Withdrawal Syndrome are Substance Use Counseling, Nutrition Monitoring, Health Teaching, Relaxation Techniques, and Environmental Management.