Impaired gas exchange

Impaired gas exchange

Gas exchange refers to the process by which oxygen and carbon dioxide are exchanged between the lungs and the blood. When this process is impaired, it can lead to a variety of problems and complications. In the nursing field, this is referred to as “Impaired Gas Exchange” and is classified as a NANDA nursing diagnosis.

NANDA Nursing Diagnosis Definition

According to NANDA International, the official definition of “Impaired Gas Exchange” is: “A disturbance in the transfer of oxygen and/or carbon dioxide between the patient and the environment as evidenced by dyspnea, cyanosis, changes in oxygen saturation, and/or changes in arterial blood gases.”

Defining Characteristics

  • Cyanosis
  • Dyspnea
  • Restlessness
  • Tachypnea
  • Wheezing

Related Factors

  • Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)
  • Pneumonia
  • Pulmonary edema
  • Pulmonary embolism
  • Respiratory distress

Risk Population

Individuals who are at a higher risk for developing “Impaired Gas Exchange” include:

  • Elderly adults
  • Individuals with chronic lung disease
  • Individuals with heart failure
  • Individuals with respiratory infections
  • Individuals on certain medications, such as opioids or sedatives

Associated Problems

  • Acute respiratory failure
  • Hypoxia
  • Infections
  • Shock
  • Tissue perfusion problems

Suggestions for Use

  • Monitor oxygen saturation and arterial blood gases
  • Administer oxygen as ordered
  • Assess for and address any underlying conditions that may be contributing to impaired gas exchange, such as pneumonia or COPD
  • Implement measures to prevent infections, such as proper hand hygiene and aseptic technique
  • Monitor patient for signs of respiratory distress and take appropriate action as necessary

Suggested Alternative NANDA Diagnoses

  • Ineffective Airway Clearance
  • Ineffective Breathing Pattern
  • Impaired Gas Exchange related to mechanical ventilation
  • Impaired Physical Mobility
  • Impaired bed mobility

Usage Tips

  • This diagnosis should be used in conjunction with other diagnoses that may be contributing to the impaired gas exchange, such as pneumonia or COPD.
  • It is important to monitor the patient’s response to interventions and adjust as necessary.
  • It is also important to consider the patient’s overall respiratory history and any previous respiratory events they may have experienced.
  • In cases where the patient is experiencing severe impaired gas exchange, referral to a respiratory therapist or pulmonologist may be necessary.

NOC Results

  1. Gas Exchange: This outcome measures the patient’s gas exchange, which can indicate the effectiveness of interventions and overall respiratory function.
  2. Oxygenation Status: This outcome measures the patient’s oxygenation status, which can indicate changes in gas exchange and overall respiratory function.
  3. Respiratory Rate: This outcome measures the patient’s respiratory rate, which can indicate changes in gas exchange and overall respiratory function.
  4. Tissue Perfusion: This outcome measures the patient’s tissue perfusion, which can be affected by impaired gas exchange.

NIC Interventions

  1. Oxygen Therapy: This intervention involves administering oxygen to improve gas exchange and overall respiratory function.
  2. Respiratory Monitoring: This intervention involves monitoring the patient’s gas exchange, oxygenation status, and respiratory rate to assess the effectiveness of interventions and detect any changes in respiratory function.
  3. Chest Physical Therapy: This intervention involves techniques to mobilize secretions and improve lung expansion to enhance gas exchange and overall respiratory function.
  4. Infection Control: This intervention involves implementing measures to prevent infections, such as proper hand hygiene, to protect the patient’s overall health and respiratory function.

Conclusion

Impaired Gas Exchange is a serious concern that can lead to a variety of problems and complications. By understanding the NANDA nursing diagnosis and utilizing appropriate interventions, nurses can help to promote optimal respiratory function and prevent further complications in at-risk patients.

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