Respiratory patterns refer to the way in which the patient breathes and the rate, depth and rhythm of the breathing. When the patient’s breathing pattern is ineffective, it can lead to a variety of problems and complications such as hypoxia, decreased lung expansion, and difficulty breathing. In the nursing field, this is referred to as “Ineffective Respiratory Pattern” and is classified as a NANDA nursing diagnosis.
NANDA Nursing Diagnosis Definition
According to NANDA International, the official definition of “Ineffective Respiratory Pattern” is: “A deviation from normal breathing patterns as evidenced by shortness of breath, cyanosis, increased work of breathing, and/or changes in oxygen saturation.”
Defining Characteristics (Subjectives and Objectives)
- Shortness of breath
- Increased work of breathing
- Changes in oxygen saturation
- Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)
- Chest injury
- Neuromuscular disorders
Individuals who are at a higher risk for developing “Ineffective Respiratory Pattern” include:
- Elderly adults
- Individuals with chronic lung disease
- Individuals with asthma
- Individuals with chest injury
- Individuals with neuromuscular disorders
- Individuals with high levels of stress or anxiety
- Acute respiratory failure
- Decreased lung expansion
Suggestions for Use
- Assess patient’s breathing pattern and monitor for changes in rate, depth, and rhythm.
- Administer bronchodilators, mucolytics, or other medications as ordered
- Instruct patient in techniques such as deep breathing, coughing, and use of incentive spirometer to improve respiratory pattern
- Implement measures to prevent infections, such as proper hand hygiene and aseptic technique
- Monitor patient for signs of respiratory distress and take appropriate action as necessary
- Provide a calming and comfortable environment to reduce stress and anxiety levels
Suggested Alternative NANDA Diagnoses
- Ineffective Airway Clearance
- Impaired Gas Exchange
- Ineffective Breathing Pattern
- Risk for Injury related to impaired physical mobility
- Impaired Spontaneous Ventilation
- This diagnosis should be used in conjunction with other diagnoses that may be contributing to the ineffective respiratory pattern, such as pneumonia or COPD.
- It is important to monitor the patient’s response to interventions and adjust as necessary.
- It is also important to consider the patient’s overall respiratory history and any previous respiratory events they may have experienced.
- In cases where the patient is experiencing severe ineffective respiratory pattern, referral to a respiratory therapist or pulmonologist may be necessary.
List of NOC Results with Explanation
- Respiratory Pattern: This outcome measures the patient’s breathing pattern, which can indicate changes in overall respiratory function and effectiveness of interventions.
- Oxygenation Status: This outcome measures the patient’s oxygenation status, which can be affected by ineffective respiratory pattern.
- Breathing Effort: This outcome measures the patient’s breathing effort, which can indicate changes in overall respiratory function and effectiveness of interventions.
- Tissue Perfusion: This outcome measures the patient’s tissue perfusion, which can be affected by ineffective respiratory pattern.
List of NIC Interventions with Explanation
- Breathing Techniques: This intervention involves techniques such as deep breathing, coughing, and use of an incentive spirometer to improve the patient’s respiratory pattern and overall respiratory function.
- Medications Management: This intervention involves administering medications such as bronchodilators, mucolytics, or other as ordered to improve the patient’s respiratory pattern and overall respiratory function.
- Chest Physical Therapy: This intervention involves techniques to mobilize secretions and improve lung expansion to enhance the patient’s respiratory pattern and overall respiratory function.
- Infection Control: This intervention involves implementing measures to prevent infections, such as proper hand hygiene, to protect the patient’s overall health and respiratory function.
- Relaxation Techniques: This intervention involves techniques such as meditation, yoga or deep breathing exercises to reduce stress and anxiety levels which may affect the patient’s respiratory pattern
Ineffective Respiratory Pattern is a serious concern that can lead to a variety of problems and complications. By understanding the NANDA nursing diagnosis and utilizing appropriate interventions, nurses can help to promote optimal respiratory function and prevent further complications in at-risk patients.