Cerebral Palsy, commonly known as CP, is a disorder of the brain that affects movement and coordination. It is a neurological condition that occurs before or during birth. The degree of disability associated with CP varies from person to person, ranging from mild to severe impairments in mobility and other domains. A nursing care plan for cerebral palsy will involve managing the patient’s physical disabilities and providing support for the person and their family.
Motor Function: Cerebral palsy typically affects the individual’s ability to move and control normal body movements. The extent of these impairments are highly variable and usually require assessment to determine the best course of action and therapeutic interventions to improve mobility.
Sensory: The sensory system can be affected by CP, in particular visual, auditory, and tactile senses. People may experience an impairment or alteration in their ability to interpret information, regulate arousal levels, and in maintaining attention and alertness.
Communication: The communication abilities of people with cerebral palsy can range from nonverbal to fully verbal, depending on the severity of the disability. Speech therapy and vocational training may be necessary to help the individual reach their most optimal level of communication efforts.
Behavioral: Behavioral changes can occur in those with cerebral palsy, due to their physical disability and the cognitive deficits that often accompany it. Some individuals may need additional help with managing their day-to-day activities, emotions, and relationships.
Ineffective Airway Clearance: This is a common problem for those with cerebral palsy, as the abnormal posturing and hypotonicity of the muscles can lead to loss of breath or obstructions of the airway. Manual positioning and special assistive devices such as positioning wedges and standers may be required to maintain a clear airway.
Risk for Injury: People with cerebral palsy may have impaired balance, leading to increased risk of falls or other injuries from accidents. Proper use of adaptive equipment, assistance with ambulation, and strategies to increase safety awareness are important for reducing this risk.
Impaired Physical Mobility: Mobility issues are very common among individuals with cerebral palsy, as the disease causes weakness and/or decreased coordination in the muscles. Assistive devices such as walkers, wheelchairs, braces, and orthotics are used to improve motion and prevent deformities.
Ineffective Communication: Communication difficulties are common in those with cerebral palsy, and can range from mild to severe. Speech therapy, augmentative communication devices, and other strategies may be used to maximize communication abilities.
Airway Clearance: The patient will demonstrate effective airway clearance techniques, such as coughing, log rolling, and deep breathing exercises.
Injury Prevention: The patient will follow safety precautions, demonstrate the proper use of adaptive equipment, and participate in ambulation activities safely.
Physical Mobility: The patient will demonstrate effective use of ambulatory devices and equipment, appropriate body mechanics, and improved mobility skills.
Communication: The patient will use appropriate communication strategies to express their needs, as well as form meaningful relationships with peers and health care providers.
Airway Clearance: Assist the patient with manual positioning and positioning aids to ensure an open airway. Monitor breathing patterns and provide suctioning as needed.
Injury Prevention: Instruct the patient in safety measures such as using aids for stability, obtaining assistance with transfers and ambulation, and avoiding objects and activities that may cause injury.
Physical Mobility: Work with the patient to develop an exercise plan tailored to their needs, such as strengthening and stretching activities. Provide instruction on proper body mechanics and positioning.
Communication: Assess the patient’s current communication abilities and work with speech-language pathologists to assess possible interventions. Provide instruction on ways to maximize communication, such as gestures and vocalizations.
Airway Clearance: Manual positioning and positioning aids are important for keeping the airway open and prevent airway obstruction. Suctioning helps to clear the airway and reduce the risk of infection.
Injury Prevention: Safety measures are important for preventing accidents and minimizing the risk of injury. Adaptive equipment can aid in maintaining balance and independence. Ambulation activities such as walking and swimming can help improve mobility
Physical Mobility: Exercise and body mechanics instruction can improve the patient’s overall strength and mobility. Strengthening and stretching activities can also help to alleviate muscle tightness and reduce pain.
Communication: Communication is an important part of quality of life and can help patients interact more effectively with their families and peers. Speech-language pathologists can assess for and provide appropriate interventions for language and communication abilities.
To evaluate the success of the nursing care plan it is important to assess the patient’s progress with regards to airway clearance, injury prevention, physical mobility, and communication skills. Evaluating and monitoring these goals over time will determine if further intervention is needed, or if the current plan iseffective in meeting the patient’s needs.
Creating a nursing care plan for those with cerebral palsy includes identifying possible impairments, assessing these key areas, creating outcomes and interventions, implementing these strategies, and evaluating effectiveness of the plan over time. With the right approach and interventions, people with CP can achieve their highest potential and enjoy a high quality of life.
- What is cerebral palsy?
Cerebral palsy is a neurological disorder that affects movement, coordination, and posture. It can range from mild to severe impairments.
- What is the treatment for cerebral palsy?
The goal of treatment is to help the individual manage their disability and reach their highest potential. Treatment plans involve addressing motor, sensory, communication, and behavioral needs.
- What kind of interventions may be used to improve mobility?
Interventions to improve mobility can include strengthening and stretching exercises, physical therapy, the use of assistive devices, and proper body mechanics.
- What kind of communication techniques can be used?
Communication techniques can depend on the individual’s level of impairments, but they may include use of sign language, gestures, vocalizations, and/or augmentative communication devices.
- What is the goal of nursing care for cerebral palsy?
The goal of nursing care is to help the individual reach the highest level of functioning, manage their disability, and enjoy a good quality of life.