Introduction to Nursing Care Plan for Intellectual Disability
An intellectual disability (ID) is a condition where a person has significant limitations in mental functioning and difficulty in adapting behaviours that affect daily life. Nursing care plans are important for improving health outcomes for people with intellectual disabilities.
Screening: Screening tests are conducted in order to determine cognitive impairments or any behavioural disturbances. This helps the healthcare team in planning the nursing care plan.
Medical history and physical exam: Complete evaluation includes family, physical and environmental history. Physical exams and lab tests may be necessary. Also, clinical assessment or other types of tests like IQ, skill assessments and so on can also be done.
Designing Evaluation Tools: Depending upon the situation, questionnaires, interviews or focus group discussions may be designed to evaluate the response of the patient and develop an effective care plan.
The following are some of the nursing diagnoses for a person with intellectual disability:
- Activity Intolerance: Due to reduced energy or fatigue, the individual may experience difficulty in completing daily activities.
- Social Isolation: The individual may isolate himself/herself due to communication challenges and less interaction with peers.
- Self-care Deficit: Due to lack of understanding and impaired memory, the individual may require help with basic hygiene and self-care tasks.
- Risk for Injury: The individual may become vulnerable to accidents and injuries while conducting everyday activities.
The desired outcomes of the nursing care plan have to be realistic and achievable in a reasonable timeframe. It must promote safety, independence and allow maximal functioning.
Based on the nursing diagnosis, the interventions should focus on building skills and abilities and providing appropriate care. It should focus on promoting safety and comfort, reducing discomfort, optimizing physical health and increasing independence in daily living.
- Prescribe Ongoing Medical Treatment
- Family education about the individual’s condition and how to manage it safely
- Provide supervision and assistance with activities of daily living
- Promote positive behaviour and social skills
- Development of goals and objectives.
It is important to understand why a certain intervention is chosen to explain the rationale behind its use. It also helps to develop trust between the patient and the healthcare team.
Evaluating the effectiveness of the nursing care plan helps to identify if changes need to be made to the plan and ensure progress towards the desired outcomes. Assess the patient’s response to interventions, check for any further medical complications and note the family’s understanding about the illness.
Treatment for people with intellectual disability must be tailored to their individual needs and abilities. A comprehensive nursing care plan with interventions designed to address the underlying medical conditions, as well as psycho-social and adaptive needs of the patient can ensure progress and better health outcomes.
- What is an intellectual disability?
An intellectual disability is a condition where a person has significant limitations in mental functioning and difficulty in adapting behaviours that affect daily life.
- What are the nursing diagnosis for an individual with intellectual disability?
The nursing diagnosis for individuals with intellectual disability include Activity Intolerance, Social Isolation, Self-care Deficit and Risk for Injury.
- What is the goal of a nursing care plan?
The goal of a nursing care plan is to promote safety, independence and allow maximal functioning of the individual.
- What are the interventions for a nursing care plan?
The interventions for a nursing care plan should focus on building skills and abilities and providing appropriate care. It should focus on promoting safety and comfort, reducing discomfort, optimizing physical health and increasing independence in daily living.
- What is the role of evaluation in nursing care plan?
Evaluation is an important part of nursing care plan which helps to identify if changes need to be made to the plan and ensure progress towards the desired outcomes.