Introduction to Migraine
Migraine is a primary headache disorder that affects up to 10% of the population. It typically presents with a pulsating and throbbing one-sided headache, usually accompanied by sensitivity to light, sound and smells. Migraine headaches can last from 4-72 hours in an episodic form or can last for weeks or months in a chronic form.
Assessment for Migraine
Pain – Usually causes moderate to severe intensity pain on one or both sides of the head. Some people may experience numbness, heaviness or pressure in the affected area.
Triggers -Almost triggers can be identified that can include stressful situations, fatigue, certain foods, hormonal changes, loud noises and sleep disturbances.
Duration – Migraine headaches last from 4-72 hours and can turn chronic.
Associated symptoms – Most common are nausea, vomiting, photophobia, phonophobia and osmophobia.
Nursing Diagnosis for Migraine
Acute pain related to migraine headache – This is the main symptom of migraine and accompanies the other signs and symptoms of migraine. The pain is severe, throbbing and has been associated with decreased quality of life.
Ineffective coping related to stressors – Stressful events or thoughts can trigger or worsen headaches in some people. Therefore, learning stress management is essential when living with migraines.
Outcomes for Migraine
Patient will experience reduced intensity of pain – Medication, cognitive behavioural strategies as well as relaxation and distraction techniques are used to reduce the intensity of pain.
Patient will identify and manage stressors – Patients will learn to recognize their stressors, develop coping strategies to manage their stress and evaluate the effectiveness of these strategies.
Interventions for Migraine
- Prescribe appropriate medications – Acute medications that include analgesics and triptans are prescribed to treat the pain caused by migraines.
- Provide patient education – Patients should be educated about migraine and its management, such as avoiding trigger factors, identifying warning signs and taking preventive measures.
- Stress management – Patients will be taught relaxation techniques and cognitive behavioral therapy to help manage stress.
Rationales for Migraine
- Medications – Medications are prescribed to reduce pain intensity caused by migraines.
- Patient education – Patients should have knowledge about migraine to manage the symptoms associated with it.
- Stress management – Stress management helps reduce the severity of the pain and frequency of migraine headaches.
Evaluations for Migraine
Regular assessments of migraine symptoms are done to evaluate the effectiveness of the interventions, monitor side effects and determine if any further interventions are needed.
Migraine is a disabling and painful neurological condition that affects millions of people all over the world. An individualized nursing care plan is necessary to provide relief from the symptoms and improve the quality of life of a person suffering from migraine. Proper assessment, correct diagnosis, use of appropriate interventions, encouragement of self-care practices and regular evaluations can provide effective control over migraine.
FAQs on Migraine
- What is the best treatment for migraine? – The best treatment for migraine depends on each individual, however there are some treatments which are commonly used. These include medications, relaxation techniques, cognitive behavioural strategies and lifestyle changes such as diet and exercise.
- Can migraine be prevented? – Yes, certain measures can help to reduce the frequency and severity of migraines such as avoiding triggering factors, healthy lifestyle and practice relaxation exercises.
- How does migraines affect the quality of life? – Migraines can have a negative impact on the quality of life due to their intensity, duration, frequency and associated disability.
- What are the common triggers of migraine? – Common triggers of migraine include stress and anxiety, changing hormonal levels, fatigue, bright lights and loud sounds.
- Is there any cure for migraine? – Migraine cannot be cured completely, but its symptoms can be managed by medication and lifestyle changes.