Introduction for Nursing Diagnosis
Female genital mutilation (FGM) is a practice that is culturally, religiously and/or regionally accepted in certain parts of the world.However, the World Health organization has categorically declared it as a serious violation of the human rights of women and girls and have considered it, along with child marriage, as a form of gender-based violence.
NANDA Nursing Diagnosis Definition
Risk of Female Genital Mutilation (FGM) is defined as the state in which an individual is at risk due to the presence of known or potential experience of female circumcision. It refers to all procedures involving the partial or total removal of the female external genitalia or any other non-medical injury to the female genital organs for any cultural, religious or other non-therapeutic reasons.
Defining Characteristics – Subjectives
- Express concerns about physical damage resulting from FGM
- Verbalize feelings of fear or anxiety regarding FGM
- Discuss cultural beliefs or rituals associated with FGM
Defining Characteristics – Objectives
- Appearance of physical damage caused by FGM
- Physically active withdrawal during physical examination
- Resistance of disclosing information
- Cultural Beliefs: Social taboos, traditional ceremony held to mark the commencement of puberty or coming of age, pressure from peers or family members to conform to these customs.
- Economic Pressures: Lack of economic empowerment of women and girls, extreme poverty making women and girls vulnerable to coercion or coercion.
- Religious Reasons: Lack of education and misinterpretation, wrong interpretation of religious texts.
The following population is at increased risk for Female Genital Mutilation:
- Girls between infancy and 15 years of age
- Young adult women
- Women living in rural areas
- Women belonging to certain ethnic, cultural, or religious groups such as in Africa, Middle East, and among immigrants in Australia, Canada and the US
FGM can result in various physical, psychological and social problems, including:
- Daily pain
- Depression and PTSD
- Increased risk of maternal mortality and morbidity for postpartum hemorrhage, infection, eclampsia etc.
- Damage to the urethra which can lead to recurrent urinary tract infections
- Obstructed labor
- Uterine damage and infertility
- Certain types of Cancers
Suggestions of Use
A healthcare provider can use this NANDA nursing diagnosis when caring for any patient at risk for Female Genital Mutilation. This includes patients who are:
- Immigrants from an FGM practicing country
- Victims of human trafficking
- Visiting traditional healers
- Living in a community where FGM is practiced
Suggested Alternative NANDA Diagnoses
Other, alternative NANDA Nursing Diagnoses related to Risk of Female Genital Mutilation include:
- Risk for Injury related to FGM
- Ineffective Coping related to FGM
- Ineffective Health Maintenance related to FGM
- Risk for Spiritual Distress related to FGM
It is important to keep in mind that this nursing diagnosis should not be used to pathologize or criticize specific cultural practices but instead to assess and manage those individuals who are at risk. It is essential to consider spiritual, cultural and social factors while formulating a care plan. All legal obligations must be adhered to while working on this diagnosis.
Nursing care plans formulated using this NANDA Nursing Diagnosis may focus on the following NOC outcomes:
- Knowledge: Female Genital Mutilation – The patient will demonstrate knowledge about FGM.
- Safety Status: Protection from FGM – The patient will be safeguarded from the risk of Female Genital Mutilation.
- Coping: Stress Tolerance – The patient’s coping skills will allow him/her to withstand situations related to FGM.
Nursing interventions for Risk of Female Genital Mutilation may include:
- Health Teaching: Educate the client about the dangers of FGM and discuss safe-sex methods.
- Referral Preparation: Assist the client in making appropriate referral arrangements to follow-up care.
- Safety Planning: Develop a plan to ensure the safety of the child in case of imminent risk of FGM.
Conclusion and FAQ
Female Genital Mutilation is an extremely serious human rights violation and has damaging consequences for those affected. Healthcare providers should assess for FGM risk and develop effective interventions for prevention and management. It is important to respect and understand cultural perspectives when engaging in healthcare related to Female Genital Mutilation, while also protecting the rights of all individuals involved.