Introduction to Nursing Diagnosis: Risk of Metabolic Syndrome
Metabolic Syndrome is a set of risk factors for developing heart disease, stroke and type 2 diabetes. When one or more of these risk factors are present in an individual, it increases his or her likelihood of developing serious health problems. NANDA (North American Nursing Diagnosis Association) has included the nursing diagnosis of ‘Risk of Metabolic Syndrome’ in its approved list of nursing diagnoses.
NANDA Nursing Diagnosis Definition
Risk for Metabolic Syndrome: A pattern of increased insulin resistance and hypofunction, leading to increased risk of type 2 diabetes, hypertension, dyslipidemia and cardiovascular disease, as evidenced by clustered factors of systolic and diastolic blood pressure, waist circumference, level of triglycerides and HDL cholesterol.
- Expresses feeling of being overweight
- Expresses concern about health implications of increased body weight
- Dull and unfocused activity
- Waist Circumference ≥ 102 cm in men, ≥ 88 cm in women.
- Fasting Blood Glucose ≥ 100 mg/dl.
- HDL cholesterol ≤ 40 mg/dl in men, ≤ 50 mg/dl in women.
- Systolic and Diastolic Blood Pressure > 130/85 mmHg.
- Triglyceride levels ≥ 150 mg/dl.
One of the major related factors is physical inactivity which leads to accumulation of adipose tissue leading to health issues. Other related factors include genetics, stress and poor eating habits.
Individuals with a family history of metabolic syndrome are at risk. Certain ethnicities, such as African-Americans, American Indians, and Latinx Americans, are also at higher risk. Individuals with obesity are also more likely to develop metabolic syndrome.
Individuals may present with difficulty with management of stress, anxiety, fear or depression because of their health status, or they may have impaired physical mobility.
Suggestions for Use
Evaluation of potential risk factors can help identify individuals at risk for metabolic syndrome who would benefit from lifestyle modifications, early detection and intervention. Early identification and appropriate interventions can reduce the likelihood of progression of the disorder.
Suggested NANDA Alternative Diagnoses
- Readiness for Enhanced Weight Management
- Imbalanced Nutrition: More than Body Requirements
- Ineffective Health Maintenance
- Risk for Other-Directed Violence
- Risk for Disproportionate Growth
The RN should plan care activities in collaboration with other members of the health care team, taking into consideration the effect of changes on the patient’s condition. It is important to provide education to the patient and family members to help change behaviors that lead to metabolic syndrome.
- Nutrition: The patient will maintain an optimal nutritional state (e.g., normal body composition, adequate intake of nutrients, adequate hydration levels).
- Health Behavior: The patient will engage in positive health maintenance behaviors (e.g., adequate physical activity, good hygiene practices, healthy dietary patterns).
- Sleep/Rest: the patient will achieve adequate sleep and rest (e.g., progress towards establishing a regular sleep schedule, reduced fatigue).
- Tissue Perfusion: The patient will demonstrate adequate tissue perfusion (e.g., normal skin color, capillary refill less than three seconds).
- Quality Monitoring: Monitor patient’s condition and prevalence of metabolic syndrome risk factors associated with the disorder (e.g., hypertension, dyslipidemia, insulin resistance).
- Nutritional Counseling: Provide patient and family education regarding nutrition (e.g., food selection, portion size, special needs diets).
- Exercise Promotion: Encourage participation in recommended exercise activities (e.g., walking, jogging, biking).
- Health Education: Teach patient about strategies for maintaining a healthy lifestyle (e.g., relaxation techniques, support system, behavior modification, stress management).
- Medication Management: Manage medications prescribed for control of metabolic syndrome.
Risk for Metabolic Syndrome is a nursing diagnosis recognized by NANDA. The nurse can utilize evaluation of potential risk factors, early identification, and appropriate interventions to reduce the likelihood of progression of the disorder. The nurse must collaborate with other members of the health care team to plan care activities, provide necessary education to patient and family, and monitor the patient’s condition and related risk factors.
- What is the definition of Risk of Metabolic Syndrome? Risk for Metabolic Syndrome is a pattern of increased insulin resistance and hypofunction, leading to increased risk of type 2 diabetes, hypertension, dyslipidemia and cardiovascular disease, as evidenced by clustered factors of systolic and diastolic blood pressure, waist circumference, level of triglycerides and HDL cholesterol.
- Who is at risk for Metabolic Syndrome? Individuals with a family history of metabolic syndrome, individuals from certain ethnicities (African-Americans, American Indians, and Latinx Americans), and those with obesity are more likely to develop metabolic syndrome.
- What interventions can I use to address Metabolic Syndrome? Interventions that can be used include Quality Monitoring, Nutritional Counseling, Exercise Promotion, Health Education and Medication Management.