Introduction to NANDA Nursing Diagnosis: Self-Care Deficit
NANDA Nursing Diagnosis is a standardized language and classification system used by nurses. It developed by the North American Nursing Diagnosis Association (NANDA). The term ‘self-care deficit’ is used in the context of nurses providing health care, which includes dressing patients.
NANDA Nursing Diagnosis Definition: Self-Care Deficit
Self-Care Deficit nursing diagnosis is defined as a state in which an individual is unable to independently perform or complete activities of daily living such as dressing. This diagnosis is usually seen in elderly people and those with physical, cognitive or psychological illness.
- Verbal report of inability to dress self
- Patient may express feelings of frustration
- May demonstrate confusion
- Verbal requests for assistance in dressing
- Inability to dress self
- Demonstrates difficulty in carrying out task (e.g. buttoning, zipping, tying shoelaces)
- Presence of chronic illness/immobility/injury
- Signs of fatigue/lethargy on carrying out small tasks
- Physical Disabilities – Limited strength, flexibility, coordination or vision can hinder the ability perform self-care activities such as dressing.
- Cognitive Impairment – Memory deficits, diminished comprehension and judgement impair the capacity to carry out dressing activities.
- Psychosocial Factors – Depression, depression, and other mental health issues can limit knowledge and skills to dress oneself.
- Environmental – Hazards such as slippery surfaces and inadequate lighting can thwart efforts to perform dressing activities.
- Elderly – Elderly individuals are more likely to have physical disabilities or cognitive impairments that can lead to Self-Care Deficit.
- Infants and Children – Infants and children may lack the motor skills or cognitive understanding to dress themselves.
- Patients with Chronic Illness – Patients with heart disease, diabetes, or other chronic illnesses are at risk for Self Care-Deficit due to physical or cognitive limitations from their condition.
- Skin Breakdown – Unable to dress oneself could expose body parts to moist, warm environments increasing risk for skin breakdown.
- Decreased Independence – A need for help with dressing may decrease one’s sense of independence and self-esteem.
- Injury – If a patient attempts to dress herself but is unsuccessful, she may fall, injure muscles or joints, or burn herself.
Self-Care Deficit related to physical illness, psychological factors or environment should be considered when a patient is unable to perform activities of daily living such as dressing. The nurse should assess the degree of impairment, provide teaching and assistance with activities, and work with the patient to maximize independence.
Suggested Alternative NANDA Nursing Diagnoses
- Ineffective Dressing Pattern – Inability to choose appropriate clothing for self-care activities.
- Risk for Self-Mutilation – Risk for deliberate destruction of one’s body
- Readiness For Enhanced Self-Care – Readiness to learn new methods of self-care.
When assessing a patient for Self-Care Deficit, it is important to consider environmental factors that may be contributing to the problem and to discuss solutions with the patient. Nurses should use multidisciplinary strategies such as cognitive strategies and strategies for physical independence when addressing this type of deficit.
- Personal Care – Level of performance of activities of daily living (ADL) necessary for optimal functioning.
- Sedentary Lifestyle – Level of physical activity and the amount of rest needed.
- Body Temperature – Agent used to control body temperature.
- Skin Integrity – Dimension of skin integrity.
- Self-Care Ability – Ability to activate and manage behavior necessary for personal protection and comfort.
- Coping – Use of resources to adapt to changing environment.
- Mistrust – Alertness contained in reactions to perceived threat.
- Activities of Daily Living Training – Instruction on basic skills of bathing, dressing, grooming and meal preparation.
- Safety Monitoring – Progress observed to prevent injury during performance of dressing.
- Protective Strategies Training – Teaching to increase awareness of potential risks and to protect the person from further disturbances or injury.
- Home Management Training – Strategies to increase the patient’s competence with tasks such as laundry, shopping, and home environment safety.
- Caregiver Support – Assisting significant others in gaining knowledge and skills to provide age-appropriate care.
Self-Care Deficit is a challenging nursing diagnosis faced by nurses providing health care. Nurses must assess the patient’s abilities, consider environmental and psychosocial factors, and work in collaboration with other members of the multidisciplinary team to successfully manage this diagnosis.
- What is Self-Care Deficit? – Self-Care Deficit is a nursing diagnosis which refers to the inability of an individual to independently dress himself.
- Who is at risk for Self-Care Deficit? – Elderly, infants & children and patients with chronic illness are at risk for self-care deficit.
- What interventions can be implemented to address Self-Care Deficit? – Interventions to address Self Care-Deficit include activities of daily living training, safety monitoring, protective strategies training, home management training, and caregiver support.